An image sequence is a collection of captured images that have been recorded. The Image Sequence panel (see Figure 1) is located below the Main Image on the Thermalyze application window.
Figure 1: Image Sequence panel
An image sequence is created recording captured images using the following multimedia controls in the Image Sequence panel.
Image Limit: Image sequences are limited to 5,000 individual images.
Image Sequence Creation Controls
|Rec (Record Rate)
||Select the rate to record captured images.
| Record Images
||Press this button to start recording captured images. Unpress this button to stop recording images.
Note: If the Append button is not pressed, the existing sequence is cleared when the Record Images button is pressed.
Note: The Background Temperature of the first recorded image in the sequence is displayed in the Background Temp field in the lower right corner of the Image Sequence frame.
||When this button is pressed and then the Record Images button is pressed, newly recorded images are appended to the end of the existing sequence.
| Remove Image
||Press this button to delete the active sequence image. The active image is selected using the Sequence slider or multimedia controls.
| Remove All Images
||Press this button to delete all images from the sequence.
Image Sequence Status
||As images are recorded, the Images field in the Image Sequence panel displays the number of images that have been recorded.
||The Rate field displays the rate at which captured images were last recorded to the sequence.
Note: If images were appended to the sequence, the record rate of the most recently appended images is displayed.
Recording Captured Images
Begin capturing images.
Select the rate at which to record images from the Record drop-down box.
Press the Record Images button to begin recording captured images into the sequence.
To pause or stop recording images, unpress the Record Images button.
If the Append button is pressed, the Record Images button can be pressed again to record additional images to the sequence.
Sequence images can be displayed using the following multimedia controls in the Image Sequence panel.
Image Sequence Display Controls
||Select the speed at which to replay the sequence. Play speed applied to the speed at which the sequence was originally recorded. For example, if the sequence was recorded at 60/sec and Play Speed is set to 2x, then the sequence images will be replayed at a rate of 120 images per second.
Note: The maximum play speed is limited by the processing capabilities of your computer.
| First Image
||Display the first image in the sequence.
| Back One Image
||Display the previous image in the sequence.
| Play Reverse
||Play the sequence in reverse and stop when the first image is displayed.
| Play Forward
||Play the sequence forward and stop when the last image is displayed.
| Forward One Image
||Display the next image in the sequence.
| Last Image
||Display the last image in the sequence.
| Continuous Play
||When this button is pressed, pressing Play Forward or Play Reverse causes the sequence to be replayed continuously.
||The horizontal slider at the bottom of the Image Sequence panel enables quick sequence scanning to locate images of interest. Drag the slider left or right to scan through images. The index of the active sequence image is displayed above the slider.
Tip: The sequence slider can also be adjusted using the mouse wheel and Ctrl key as explained in the Introduction.
First, stop capturing images.
Using the Play Speed control, select the speed at which to play the sequence.
Press the Play Forward or Reverse buttons to display sequence images sequentially. Use the additional multimedia controls to display the first, last, next, and previous sequence image. Alternatively, you can drag the Sequence slider to cycle through images.
Crop and Reduce
Cropping removes images that are not needed from the beginning or end of a sequence. Reducing decreases the number of images in a sequence to reduce the disk space required to save the sequence. Reducing also results in creating smaller sequence movie files.
Image Sequence Edit Controls
| Crop Left End
||Set the Sequence slider on the first image that you want to keep and then press this button to remove the images to the left of this image.
| Crop Right End
||Set the Sequence slider on the last image that you want to keep and then press this button to remove the images to the right of this image.
| Reduce Size
||Press this button to decrease the size of the sequence in half by removing every other image in the sequence. When a sequence is reduced, the first image in the sequence is never removed. The last image in the sequence, however, will be removed if the sequence contains an even number of images.
Tip: To reduce the size of an even-numbered sequence while retaining the last image, first crop one image from the left of the sequence to create a odd-numbered sequence.
Open and Save
Image sequences are saved in binary format with a .oseq extension. To open the Save or Open Sequence dialog box (or the Open Sequence and Palette dialog box) select the item from the Sequence menu or press the or buttons on the Sequence toolbar.
Filename: The file name of the most recently opened or saved sequence file is displayed at the bottom of the Sequence panel.
When a sequence is saved, a thumbnail (.jpg) is created in the same directory as the saved sequence so that the sequence can be quickly and easily identified later.
Sequence File Data
The following data is saved in a sequence file:
||The date and time when the file was sequence was recorded.
||The background temperature when the sequence was recorded.
|Number of Images
||The number of images in the sequence.
|Sequence Record Rate
||The rate at which the image sequence was recorded.
|Image Pixel Temperatures
||Image pixel temperature values are saved in 16-bit and lossless format that preserve temperature resolution of 0.01°C.
||Any existing Regions and their associated Region Settings.
||The current Color Palette along with the palette slider and default settings.
||Notes are saved if the Notes window is open, and any notes exist.
||When a sequence is saved with Image Subtraction activated, the Reference Image is automatically saved in the sequence file.
||Select the binary sequence file (.oseq) to open. You can also select the sequence thumbnail (.jpg). When a sequence file is opened, the sequence date and Background Temperature are displayed at the bottom of the Sequence panel and then any Regions and Notes that were saved with the sequence are displayed.
Note: When a subtracted sequence is opened, the Reference Image is read from the file and loaded as the current Reference Image and then Image Subtration is activated.
|Open Sequence and Palette
||If a sequence is opened using the Open Sequence and Palette dialog box, the sequence will be displayed with the same Color Palette and Palette Max and Min settings as when it was originally saved.
||When saving a sequence file, the file name that you provide is appended with ".oseq" and saved in the "Optotherm\Thermalyze\Sequences" folder unless you specify a different folder.
Note: Saved sequences include no temperature processing such as Region Emissivity or Emissivity Tables. If this information is important to preserve, it must be saved separately by saving Emissivity Tables and saving Regions.
Image sequences can be converted into movies that can be played on multimedia players such as Window Media Player. Movies are created in MPEG-4 Part 14 format (.mp4), a standard format for recording and playing video and audio on a PC. To open the Create Sequence Movie (see Figure 2), select the Create Sequence Movie (mp4) item from the Sequence menu or press the Create Sequence Movie button on the Sequence toolbar.
Figure 2: Create Sequence Movie window
Create Sequence Movie Settings
||Click this button to open the Create Sequence Movie file dialog box. The file name that you provide is appended with ".mp4" and saved in the "Optotherm\Thermalyze\Movies" folder unless a different folder is selected.
||Choose the contents to display in the movie. You can display images only, images and Region Data, or the entire screen. Choose the entire screen if you want to include multiple windows or graphs in the movie.
Note: If the Entire Screen option is selected, the movie file size may be very large and any actions you perform on the screen while creating the movie will be recorded in the movie.
||Set the compression level of the file. Higher quality levels will improve video and audio quality by lowering data compression but will result in large file size.
||Click this button to start creating the movie.
||Click this button to cancel movie creation after it has been started.
Creating a Movie
Create or open an image sequence.
If necessary, crop and reduce the size of the sequence to reduce the movie file size.
Set the sequence Play Speed setting to control the rate at which individual images will be displayed when the movie is played.
Open the Create Sequence Movie window.
Click the File Name button and enter a name for the movie.
Choose the Movie Contents.
Set the movie Quality level.
Click the Create Movie button.
Playing a Movie
To play a movie, double-click the movie file. Windows Media Player (or your default multimedia player) will automatically open, and the movie will begin to play.
Windows Media Player Tips
To play the movie in Windows Media Player if it is not your default multimedia player, right-click the movie file, hover over the Open with item on the popup menu and select Windows Media Player. To set Windows Media Player as your default multimedia player, right-click the movie file, hover over the Open with item, and select Choose another app. Select Windows Media Player and check the box at the bottom of the window named "Always use this app to open .mp4 files" and then click the OK button.
To install the latest version of Windows Media Player, search for "Get Windows Media Player" on the web to find the Windows Media Player download page. Beginning with Windows Media Player version 10, you now have the ability to adjust play speed or to step through individual movie frames. To display the Play Speed Settings box, right-click the Window Media Player title bar and select Enhancements > Play Speed Settings.
To open the Instrument Control window (see Figure 3), click the button on the Sequence toolbar, of select the Instrument Control item from the Setup menu (or click the button on the top toolbar) of the Thermal Model Comparison window or Lock-in Thermography window.
Figure 3: Instrument Control window
||Open the Instrument Settings window.
||Open the Instrument Startup window.
||Open the Instrument Safety window.
||Click this button to detect the instruments connected to the computer and list them in the Select Connected Instrument combo box.
The instruments that can be detected are Keithley USBTMC (USB test and measurement class) via USB instrument interface and USBTMC via GPIB instrument interface.
|Select Connected Instrument
||Select a connected instrument to use.
Instruments with a USB interface are listed, for example, as "USB0::0x05E6::0x2612::4482980::INSTR" where "USB0" designates the USB interface, "0x05e6" designates the Keithley Instruments vendor ID, "4482980" designates the instrument serial number, and "0x2612 designates the model number, and "INSTR" designates the USBTMC protocol.
Instruments with a GPIB interface are listed, for example, as "GPIB0::18::INSTR" where "GPIB0" designates the GPIB interface, "18" designates the GPIB address selected on the instrument, and "INSTR" designates the USBTMC protocol.
||Click this button to establish a connection with the selected instrument.
Note: A connection to the instrument must be opened before the instrument can be controlled.
||Check this box enable the instrument for use during Sequence, TMC, and LIT tests.
Note: When this box is checked, the instrument output is used in place of Sequence Relays, TMC Relays, and LIT Relays.
Important: The Instrument Control window must be open to issue commands to the instrument during Sequence, TMC, and LIT tests.
||Select the model that is selected in the Select Connected Instrument combo box.
||Select the instrument communication protocol, SCPI (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments) or TSP (Test Script Processing). SCPI is an older generic command set supported by older instruments. TSP is a Keithley proprietary command set supported by newer Keithley instruments. Not all Keithley instruments support both protocols.
Important: The protocol will also need to be selected on the instrument. On a 2450 graphical series source measure unit, the communication protocol can be found under System >> Settings >> Command Set.
||Choose to source either voltage or current.
||Choose the instrument channel to use.
||Click this button to setup the instrument with the selected source and measure settings. When instrument settings are changed, the message "* Setup Required" is displayed to the right of the button until the instrument has been setup with the new settings.
Note: The instrument must be setup before a test can be started.
||Enter the output voltage during a Sequence or TMC test, and the first half of each cycle of a lock-in test.
Note: The voltage measurement range is determined by the larger absolute value of the Voltage High and Low settings.
||Enter the output voltage during the second half of each cycle of a lock-in test.
||Enter the maximum output current.
Note: This value may be automatically limited to the Safety Current Limit if the source voltage exceeds the Safety Voltage Limit.
Important: When Current Limit is exceeded during a test, instrument output response may slow significantly as output voltage is reduced to lower current below the limit level. This may result in voltage and current readings that do not reflect values when the output settles.
||Enter the current measurement range. When testing circuits with high capacitance or inductance, setting the range higher than Current Limit can help prevent damage to instrument output circuitry. To set the current measurement range equal to Current Limit, set this value lower than Current Limit.
Note: Some instrument models require Current Limit to be within a specific percentage of Current Range and will issue an error if this value is set too high.
||Check a box to turn on and test the instrument high or low voltage output. Uncheck a box to turn off the output. These boxes are used during test setup to confirm electrical connection and to evaluate power and resistance dissipation in a defect to estimate required testing time.
||Enter the output current during a Sequence or TMC test, and the first half of each cycle of a lock-in test.
Note: The current measurement range is determined by this setting.
||Enter the maximum voltage output.
Note: This value may be automatically limited to the Safety Voltage Limit if the source voltage exceeds the Safety Current Limit.
Important: When Voltage Limit is exceeded during a test, instrument output response may slow significantly as output current is reduced to lower voltage below the limit level. This may result in voltage and current readings that do not reflect values when the output settles.
||Enter the voltage measurement range. When testing circuits with high capacitance or inductance, setting the range higher than Voltage Limit can help prevent damage to instrument output circuitry. To set the voltage measurement range equal to Voltage Limit, set this value lower than Voltage Limit.
Note: Some instrument models require Voltage Limit to be within a specific percentage of Voltage Range and will issue an error if this value is set too high.
||Check a box to turn on and test the instrument current output. Uncheck a box to turn off the output. This box is used during test setup to confirm electrical connection and to evaluate power and resistance dissipation in a defect to estimate required testing time.
||Check the Enable box to conduct real-time instrument measurements on the instrument front panel which are then displayed at the bottom of the Instrument Control window. Timed readings are performed when a voltage or current test box is checked and during Sequence and TMC tests.
Important: When controlling an instrument remotely via USB or IEEE-488, continuous measurement triggering enables the instrument to conduct measurements continuously when the Test box is checked (see above). If this feature is not available on your instrument, then the Timed: Enable box must be checked to conduct measurements while testing the instrument output. See the Instrument Model Feature Support table to determine if your instrument support continuous measurement triggering.
||Enter the real-time instrument read frequency.
|Lock-in Test: Enable
||Conduct real-time instrument measurements on the instrument front panel which are then displayed at the bottom of the Instrument Control window. LIT Test readings are performed during LIT tests after changes in output.
Note: Measurements can be read from the instrument during LIT tests only when Cycle Frequency is 1Hz and lower to prevent disrupting cycle test timing.
||This setting determines when current and voltage are read from the instrument after a change in output during a lock-in test. Increase this setting to delay current and voltage measurements, allowing adequate time for the instrument output to settle and to conduct measurements.
Note: Changes in output voltage and current and their measurement are very fast but not instantaneous. Additionally, the magnitude of voltage and current output and settings including High and Low, High Capacitance Mode, Current Limit, NPL Cycles, and Auto Zero determine instrument output settling time and measurement speed.
||After checking a voltage or current test box to turn on instrument output, click this button to read and display the output current and voltage until the instrument output has settled.
||Click this button to send the values in the Current, Voltage, Power, and Resistance fields to the status bar in the Lock-in Thermography window and to the Lock-in Advanced Save and Export window.
||Click this button to open the IV Curve window.
||Display field for the measured current in units of milliamps.
||Display field for the measured voltage in units of volts.
||Display field for the power dissipation in the resistive short circuit of leakage current site in units of microwatts. Power is calculated by multiplying the measured current and voltage.
Tip: Power dissipation in a resistive short is used to estimate the LIT test time required to detect the defect.
||Display field for the resistance of the short circuit of leakage current site in units of ohms. Resistance is calculated by dividing the measured voltage by the measured current.
Relay outputs can be used to control power to a device while recording an image sequence. To open the Relay Setup for Image Sequence Tests window (see Figure 4), select the Sequence Relay Setup item from the Sequence menu or press the button on the Sequence toolbar.
Relay Info: Refer to the relay device manufacturer documentation for detailed specifications and instructions regarding making proper electrical connections.
Figure 4: Sequence Relay Setup window
|Relay Device Type
||Choose the relay device that is connected to your computer.
|Initialize Selected Device
||Click this button to detect and establish communication with the selected relay device.
||Check this box enable all relays in the selected device.
Note: This box must be checked in order for any relays to be activated.
|Relay (0 to 7)
||There are 8 relays (numbered 0 through 7) that can be used to control power to a device under test. Each relay can be programmed to activate and deactivate at a specific time while recording an image sequence. To enable a relay, check its corresponding box.
|Activate (0 to 7)
||Enter the time (in seconds) to activate the relay. The time is measured from the start of recording an image sequence.
Note: The response time of activating and deactivating relays may be different for each type of relay device.
|Deactivate (0 to 7)
||Enter the time (in seconds) to deactivate the relay. The time is measured from the start of recording an image sequence.
Important: All relays are automatically deactivated when recording stops, even if the deactivate time has not been reached.
||Click this button to activate all enabled relays.
||Click this button to deactivate all enabled relays.
|Status (click to test)
||Check a box to manually activate a relay. Uncheck the box to deactivate a relay. Mechanical and reed relays will make a soft click when activated or deactivated. Solid state relays will be silent.
Sequence I/O Test Example
Open the Relay Setup for Image Sequence Tests window, check the Enable Relays box, and check the Relay 0 box.
Set the Activate time to 0.0 and the Deactivate time to 5.0 seconds for Relay 0.
Make proper electrical connections to your device and Relay 0 according to the relay device manufacturer's user manual.
Begin capturing images.
Press the Record Images button to begin recording captured images into the sequence. Relay 0 will activate when recording begins.
After 5.0 seconds, Relay 0 will deactivate.
Unpress the Record Images button to stop recording.
Stop Capturing: Unpressing the Capture Images button on the Camera toolbar will automatically deactivate all activated relays.